Voluntary approaches to the environment: effectiveness, efficiency and use in policy dosages provide an in-depth assessment of the use of voluntary approaches, based on a series of new case studies and extensive research of available literature. The analysis focuses on both voluntary approaches, which are isolated and used in policy dosages. This document contains taxonomy and models to help integrate the cost-effectiveness of voluntary environmental agreements (AVs) into the typical framework of environmental economics. Interest in the use of voluntary agreements (VAs) as an environmental policy instrument has increased. This article uses a simple model to determine whether AVs are likely to lead to effective environmental protection. We look at cases where polluters are required to participate either through a substantive threat of mandatory controls (the « stick » approach) or by cost-shared subsidies (the carrot approach). The results indicate that the overall impact on environmental quality could be positive or negative, depending on a number of factors, including the allocation of bargaining power, the extent of the underlying threat and the social cost of funds. There are cases where voluntary approaches are the only policy option available. That is the case, for example. B, if there is no authority capable of adopting and imposing a « mandatory policy, » i.e. a « command and control regulation » or a tax related to environmental performance. The OECD guidelines for multinational companies are a good example. These guidelines are recommendations made by governments to multinational companies operating in or from adhesive countries.
They contain voluntary principles and standards of responsible entrepreneurship in a wide range of areas, including employment and industrial relations, human rights, the environment, disclosure, competition, taxation, science and technology. Voluntary approaches to the environment, including negotiated environmental performance agreements with industry and public programs in which companies can voluntarily participate, are becoming increasingly popular in a number of countries. However, the OECD`s work calls into question its impact on the environment and its economic efficiency. As resources for voluntary action become increasingly important, a question needs to be asked about the factors that influence the implementation of a voluntary agreement as an environmental policy instrument. Our objective in this paper is to answer this question and outline the key variables that make a voluntary agreement effective, effective and fair. Using several articles on voluntary action under the themes of `economic regulation` and contracts under `asymmetric information`, as well as available reports on the Portuguese and European experience in the use of voluntary agreements, we will pursue this objective after three stages: (i) we begin to highlight the main factors that justify the private and public option of voluntary action. (ii) We will then conduct an analysis of the co-regulation process as part of the requirements of the three electronic criteria: efficiency, efficiency and fairness.